From the dawn of civilization, we, the human being tried their utmost to find out the remedy of our daily life’s obstacles actually find out the way of making our life easier and comfortable. In this regard, industrial engineering, one of the well-known branch of engineering plays a vital role by inventing newer and newer terms which are too much liable to the surroundings and human beings. Industrial engineering or system and operational engineering is beset with many terms like safety, process development, supply chain management, ergonomics, logistics etc. Amongst all of them, ergonomics, is one of the core actually very major one. Our today’s discussion is on that.

What is ergonomics??

If we go through the roots, ergonomics originates from two Greek word which are “ERGON” and “NOMOS or NOMOI”. Here Ergon refers to work and Nomo’s or Nomoi is for laws which are natural.

Ergonomics is the science which deals with satisfaction and comfort-

Ness of mankind. On the other saying is that it’s the process of making lives of us more relaxable by modeling or forming substance regarding our livelihood. Related this, a tremendous saying is that, “Ergonomics is the science of designing the job to fit the worker, not forcing the worker to fit the job.” So we can say that, ergonomics is the method or process which is worked for reducing mankind’s stress by dealing with his/her surroundings like workplace. So we conclude that ergonomic equipment is designed for tasks and environments in such a way as to improve

  • Health & Safety
  • Comfort
  • Performance
  • Specification

Human Factor:-

You have to consider the term “Human Factor” on the discussion of ergonomics.

Actually ergonomics and human factor both are synonymous. Human factor, also named as functional design, user friendly design, is the method of designing utensils to reduce the sufferings of human being and so make the life easier. So we found that, “ERGONOMICS” and “HUMAN FACTOR” both are almost same.

We can conclude the definition of ergonomics by adopting the definition of inter-

National ergonomics association, ”Ergonomics (or human factor) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.”





Like any other subject, ergonomics has also classification. Most of the researchers reached the point that ergonomics can be divided into three categories. They are

  • Physical Ergonomics
  • Cognitive Ergonomics &
  • Organizational Ergonomics.


On this part we described a brief description about the categories of ergonomics.

Physical Ergonomics:-

From the name of it, we have a conception that it’s related with physical substance. Physical ergonomics mainly deals with human anatomy, relaxation of human body and also find out the place of human anxiety. Actually it’s the study about the human body’s response to physical and physiological work demands. It’s greatly concerned with the impact of anatomy, physiology and also the physical environment on physical activity. The most common type of issues of physical ergonomics are the respetitive strain injuries from repetition, musculoskeletal disorders, material handling, posture, worksite development operating layout. The main elements which are discussed in the field of physical ergonomics are #Human anatomy & physiology


#Physical psychology

        #Biomechanics (especially body mechanics).




Moreover we can say that, physical ergonomics works for the betterment of workers by providing a stress-free and well body-structure suited work environment which enables the worker to give his/her best to the company or production.

Cognitive Ergonomics:-

Cognitive ergonomics is related with the cognitive power of human being and also the co-operation of human brain and the matching of brain’s ability to their workplace in order to make the workplace comfortable. According to the international ergonomics association, “Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. The relevant topics include mental workload, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system design. ”In order to optimize human well-being and enhance the duty of human brain, cognitive ergonomics is so much essential. On the discussion of cognitive ergonomics, there comes several terms like cognition, artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, neuroergonomics.

Human-computer interaction, perception, memory, reasoning, motor response. There are also some terms like brain memory, short-term memory, long-term memory, working memory, attention etc. are also got the importance.


Organizational Ergonomics:-

Organizational ergonomics, mainly deals with sociotechnical problems and mainly organizational ergonomics does the optimization of sociotechnical problems. And the sociotechnical system mainly is running by human being and his/her surroundings. Sociotechnical problems are like as human-machine interaction, habits, human liability on nature, production streamlining etc. The subjects which are most related to the organizational ergonomics are work design, resource management, matrix management etc.


Furniture’s provided in the workplace are mainly designed by maintaining many terms. Some elementary terms are given below.

  1. MSD
  2. WMSD
  3. Caution Zone &
  4. Risk Factor/Hazard Zone


MSD: – MSD stands for Muscular Skeletal Disorder. The MSD is the disorder of muscles, nerves, ligaments, cartridge, tendons etc.

WMSD: -WMSD is for Workplace Muscular Skeletal Disorder. WMSD mainly occurred for these following factors: vibration, force, repetition etc.

Caution Zone: – “Caution Zone” is one of the main key terms to provide a worker’s safe & sound workplace. Actually caution zone are awkward positions which are to be avoided for the safety of workers. Some caution zones are given below:

  1. Being in these work positions for more than 2 hours total per day.
  • Elbow above shoulder
  • Hands over head
  • Neck bent more than 30 degrees
  • Kneeling
  1. More than 2 hours per day of
  • Pinching to 2 or more pounds weight or 4 more pounds force
  • Gripping 10 or more pounds weight.
  1. Laborer’s repeat same motion every few seconds for more than 2 hours per day with
  • Elbows, neck, shoulders, wrists.
  1. Using hands or knees as a hummer more than 2 hours per day
  2. Lifting 75 lbs. once per day objects.

Risk Factors: –Shoulders, back, wrists have some limitations to movement or work and also have working duration. These limit should not be crossed to maintain risk factor.

Moreover we can say that, above’s factor have major effects on laborer’s health. So they have a great importance and should be maintained strictly.

Why Ergonomics??

Why ergonomics is needed or what’s the benefit of it? An ergonomically designed instruments related to workplace may reduce the disorder of muscles & body structure & may give the more stability of a worker to his work


There’s a simple thing that by providing a better workplace to the worker,better production can be easily expected. That’s why ergonomics is so much badly needed in the workplace.

So moreover we can say that, Ergonomics is the badly needed thing in our workplace to keep ours fit & to prevent musculoskeletal disorder.